4K

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4K UltraHD, also known as Ultra High Definition, Ultra HD or 4K, is a video format conceptualized by the Japanese public broadcasting network, NHK. On October 17, 2012, The Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) announced that the official term “Ultra HD” would be used for any display with a 16 x 9 ratio with at least 1 digital input cable carrying a minimum resolution of 3,840 x 2,160 square pixels. To Help Put this into perspective here is a visual diagram showing the size comparisons between different screen sizes.

 This diagram compares Ultra HD resolution to today’s currently available resolutions

ITU Recommendation for Ultra HDTV

ITU-R Recommendation BT.2020 (also known as “Rec. 2020”) was posted on the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) website on August 23, 2012. Rec. 2020 defines various aspects of ultra high definition television such as display resolution, frame rate, chroma subsampling, color depth, and color space.
Ultra HDTV Resolution

4K Ultra HD (2160p) has a resolution of 3840 × 2160 (8.3 megapixels), which is roughly equivalent to 4K cinema or 4 times the number of pixels in HD format (1080p).
Ultra HD Frame rate

While Rec. 2020 allows for Ultra HDTV frame rates ranging from 23.976 to 120, there are limitations with the current HDMI 1.4 specification, which means that all current Ultra HD devices offer a maximum of 3840×2160 @ 30fps.
Ultra HD Color space

The Rec. 2020 color space can reproduce colors that cannot be shown with the Rec. 709 (HDTV) color space. In coverage of the CIE 1931 color space the Rec. 2020 color space covers 75.8%, digital cinema covers 53.6%, the Adobe RGB color space covers 52.1%, and Rec. 709 covers 35.9%
Ultra HD Luma coefficients

Rec. 2020 specifies that if a luma (Y’) signal is made that it uses the R’G’B’ coefficients 0.2627, 0.6780, and 0.0593.
Ultra HD Transfer characteristics

Rec. 2020 defines the non-linear transfer function that can be used for gamma correction. 10-bits per component Rec. 2020 uses the same formula that is used by Rec. 709. 12-bits per component Rec. 2020 makes a single change in the formula in that the minimum point on a 0 to 1 light intensity range where the non-linear transfer function begins is raised from 0.018 to 0.0181. Both Rec. 2020 and Rec. 709 use Illuminant D65 for the white point.

Diagram of the CIE 1931 color space that shows the Rec. 2020 (UHDTV) color space in the outer triangle and Rec. 709 (HDTV) color space in the inner triangle. Both Rec. 2020 and Rec. 709 use Illuminant D65 for the white point.
Rec. 2020 defines an Ultra HDTV color depth of 10-bits or 12-bits. 10-bits per component Rec. 2020 uses video levels where the black level is defined as code 64 and the nominal peak is defined as code 940. Codes 0-3 and 1,020-1,023 are used for the timing reference. Codes 4 through 63 provide video data below the black level while codes 941 through 1,019 provide video data above the nominal peak. 12-bits per component Rec. 2020 uses video levels where the black level is defined as code 256 and the nominal peak is defined as code 3760. Codes 0-15 and 4,080-4,095 are used for the timing reference. Codes 16 through 255 provide video data below the black level while codes 3,761 through 4,079 provide video data above the nominal peak.

 

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